Hearing Loss and Genetics

For most people, hearing loss issues develop because something happens later in life. They get older or their ears are damaged because of accidents, infection, or exposure to loud noise.

But for some, it’s a matter of being born with issues. This falls under the rubric of genetic hearing disorders.

Genes are the basic building block of cell growth. They are the instruction manual. And unfortunately, problems can arise. These are known as mutations. These can then be passed down to successive generations as familial traits. Other factors, such as radiation exposure, can also introduce mutations.

Genetic hearing issues have been broken down into several broad categories.

When both parents have genetic traits and they are passed onto their child it is known as autosomal recessive hearing loss. Even if both parents have normal hearing, the dormant genetic predisposition can be active in their children.

If only one parent — or a new mutation — is the reason for hearing issues it’s known as autosomal dominant hearing loss.

X-linked hearing loss — when the X-chromosome mutates — is a far more common issue in men than women. Men only have one X-chromosome, while women have two (which makes the mutation less severe for women).

Genetic issues with the mitochondria don’t directly affect the ear but can do so indirectly. Mitochondria are the part of cells that generate energy and problems with them can negatively impact the workings of the inner ear.

Given the vast number of instructions in the human genome — it contains 3 billion base pairs of DNA — it’s a wonder things don’t go wrong more often. Only a few genetic wrong turns can introduce hearing loss.